Allotropy of Carbon

Allotropy of Carbon

Dear viewers: Today we will discuss a remarkable feature of CARBON, which exists in the nature in different forms with different properties.  This feature of carbon is known as Allotropy of Carbon Allotropy of Carbon It is a property of an element but by virtue of which it can exist in different forms in the nature though the chemical properties are same but the physical properties are totally different. This phenomenon is called allotropism   Carbon, Sulphur and Phosphorus do show allotropism   Allotropism of Carbon   It is broadly categorized into Crystalline and Amorphous Crystallines arel Diamond and Graphite Amorphous are Coke, Soot, Gas carbon, Charcoal Charcoals are two types  1.  Wood Charcoal and 2. Animal Charcoal, which are of two types a) Blood charcoal and b) Bone charcoal   Uses Diamond a)  Cutting glass b)  drilling stone c)  polishing diamonds d)  gems   Graphite a)  In wood pencil b)  Electrodes as it is good conductor of electricity c)  solid lubricant   Coke a)  Used in industry and in domestic purpose as fuel b)  Extraction of iron from iron ore c)  Used in boiler   Gas...
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Electrolysis

Electrolysis

Hi viewer: Today we are going to discuss the detailed process of electrolysis, which is very important topic so far examination is concerned.  Apart from that it is also an important tool of day to day life What are the Conductors and Non-Conductor? Conductor The substance through which electricity can pass through easily. Eg- iron, copper wire, dil. H2SO4   Non-Conductor The substance through which electricity can not pass through easily. Eg-  wood, rubber, glass   Metallic conductor During the passage of electricity only physical changes take place Eg.  Copper, silver, graphite, aluminum   Electrolytic conductor During the passage of electricity chemical changes take place Eg.  NaOH, Dil H2SO4   Ion Electrically charged radical of atom formed by gaining or loosing electron(s) Eg.  Na+ (lost one electron),  Cl­­- (gained one electron),  -SO4-2   Electrode The conductor through which electricity is passed into a solution is known as electrode.  They are two types one is positive and other is negative. Positive electrode is known as anode Negative electrode is known as cathode   Electrolyte Electrolyte is a compound, which spontaneously breaks up into ions either is aqueous solution or in...
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Solutions and Solubility

Solutions and Solubility

Hi viewer: Today we will discuss about the very basic knowledge about the Solutions and Solubility.  Here we will discuss the behaviour of different substances when it goes into solution at different temperature. Solution Definition It is the homogeneous mixture of two or more than two substances   There are different types of solution namely   Solid and Solid solution Example an alloy- brass, bronze, stainless steel   Solid and Liquid solution Example sugar and water solution   Liquid and Liquid solution Example water and ethyl alcohol   Liquid and Gas solution Example oxygen in water   Gas and Gas solution Example air in particular area   Solid and Liquid and Gas Example  Lemonade     In Solid and Liquid solution,  the solid is called solute and liquid is called solvent   Therefore, Solute  + Solvent  =  Solution Greater quantity is known as Solvent Lesser quantity is known as Solute     Solid liquid solution can be classified into two types Unsaturated solution- In a particular temperature when more solute can be dissolved Saturated solution-  In a particular temperature when no further solute can be dissolved If a saturated solution is heated more solute go into solution...
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Halogens (halo means salt and gens means production)

Halogens (halo means salt and gens means production)

Hi viewers: The Halogens has two word roots Halo and Gens, which are separated by a combining vowel ''O'' where Halo means salt and Gen means production.  Halogens (halo means salt and gens means production) Now let us checkout what  how Halogens are formed.   Halogens Halo means salt gens means production     Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine are halogen elements, which produce salt   Fl2    +    H2    =      2HF      hydrofluoric acid   Cl2    +    H2    =      2HCl     hydrochloric acid   Br2    +    H2    =      2HBr     hydrobromic acid   I2      +    H2    =      2HI        hydroiodic acid   These acids are when reacted to the base then salts are being produced   2HF    +    2KOH    =     2KF     +     H2O   2HCl    +    2KOH    =     2KF     +     H2O   2HBr    +    2KOH    =     2KBr     +     H2O   2HI      +     2KOH    =     2KI     +     H2O   2HF    +    2NaOH    =     2NaF     +     H2O   2HCl    +    2NaOH    =     2NaCl     +     H2O   2HBr    +    2NaOH    =     2NaBr     +     H2O   2HI    +    2NaOH    =     2NaI     +     H2O   If you have enjoyed reading this post Halogens (halo means salt and gens means production).  I would be very grateful if...
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The Different Types of Salts present in the nature

The Different Types of Salts present in the nature

Dear Viewers Today we will discuss about the The Different Types of Salts present in the nature, though it is a very short topics but it has got immense importance so far chemistry is concerned. Salt Normal salt Normal salt is a compound, which is formed by total displacement of hydrogen atom from the acid by a metal atom. E.g.  NaCl , KCl , MgCl2 , Ca Cl2 , AlCl3 , ZnCl2, NaPO4     Acidic salt It is produced by the partial displacement of one or more hydrogen atom Eg.  NaHSO4,  Na2HPO4,   NaH2PO4, It is formed from the reaction NaOH    +     H2SO4    =    NaHSO4     +    H2O     Basic salt It contains hydroxyl radical. Eg.  Pb(OH)Cl – basic lead chloride It is formed from the reaction Pb(OH)2   +   HCl   =   Pb(OH)Cl  +  H2O   If you have enjoyed reading this post The Different Types of Salts present in the nature.  I would be very grateful if you would help it to spread by sharing on social media like Facebook, Twitter, Google+, by clicking on the share buttons below. If you have...
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Acid, Base, Alkali and Neutralization Reaction

Acid, Base, Alkali and Neutralization Reaction

Hi viewers: Today we will discuss the Acid, Base, Alkali and Neutralization Reaction. ACID Acid is a compound, which donates proton (H+) in aqueous solution or in a molten state E.g.  H+  + Cl-              2H+  + SO4- -              2H+ + CO3- -   Properties of Acid : i) Most of the acids are sour in taste. ii) It turns blus litmus into red. iii) All acids contain hydrogen atom, which can be replaced by metal atoms. Zn + dil   H2SO4  =  Zn SO4   +    H2⇡ iv) Produced salt and water with base. KOH + HCl = KCl + H2 O   Classification of Acids : There are two types of acids : i) Oxy acid ii) Hydra acid   Oxy acid : It contains oxygen. E.g. HNO3 , H2SO3 , H2SO4 Hydra acid : It does not contains oxygen. E.g. Hydrofluoric acid. HF Hydrochloric acid.  HCl Hydroiodic acid.     HI Hydrobromic acid.  HBr     BASE Base is a compound, which accepts proton (OH-) in aqueous solution or in a molten state   Genrally they are hydroxide of metals that react with...
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Oxides As a Binary Compound

Oxides As a Binary Compound

Hi viewers: Today we will discuss about the Oxides As a Binary Compound, which are present in the nature. OXIDE Oxide: Oxide is a binary compound in which one of the elements is oxygen. E.g. Na2 O , C O2 Mainly there are two types of oxide : i) ACIDIC OXIDE ii) BASIC OXIDE iii)  NEUTRAL OXIDE iv) AMPHOTERIC OXIDE v) PER OXIDE vi) MIXED OXIDE   ACIDIC OXIDE:  Oxide of Non- metals are acidic oxide. E.g.  C O2 ,  NO2  ,  SO2 ,  SO3 ,  P2O5   Acid is formed mainly by adding water with Acidic oxide E.g. C O2 + H2 O = H2 CO3 [ carbonic acid] S O2 + H2 O = H2 SO4 [ sulpharous acid] S O3 + H2 O = H2 SO4  [ sulphuric acid ] N O2 + H2 O = H NO3 [ nitric acid ] P2 O5 + H2 O = H3 PO4 [ phosphoric acid]     BASIC OXIDE:   Oxide of metals are basic oxide. E.g.  Na2O ,  K2 O , Ca O , Mg O , Zn O , Al2 O3   Base is formed...
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