The Atomic Structure

The Atomic Structure

Hi viewers: Today in this blog we discuss The Atomic Structure The Atomic Structure or the structure of an atom, theoretically consisting of a positively charged nucleus surrounded and neutralized by negatively charged electrons revolving in orbits at varying distances from the nucleus, the constitution of the nucleus and the arrangement of the electrons differing with various chemical elements. Dalton’s Atomic Theory He is regarded as Father of Chemistry Every substance is composed of very minute particles, which are indivisible are known as atoms Atoms of a substance are identical in all respects Atoms of different substances are different in all respects When a substance combines with another substance, actually atoms combine with atoms When atoms combine each other their numbers are in simple ratio.   Therefore an atom is the smallest particle of an element, which can take part in chemical reaction.   Defect of the theory At present the atom may be further divided into electron, proton and neutron Atoms of same particles are alike in...
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Atomic Weight and Molecular Weight

Atomic Weight and Molecular Weight

Dear Viewers: In this blog we discuss "Atomic Weight and Molecular Weight" at length Atoms It is the smallest part of an element which cannot exist in a free state but take part in the chemical reaction. Atom of hydrogen is represented as H and sodium as Na (metals are monoatomic)   Molecule It is the smallest part of a substance (element + compound), which exist in the nature freely but cannot take part in the chemical reaction Molecule of hydrogen is represented as H2 and water as H2O Therefore molecules are combination of several atoms   Atomic Weight It is the weight of an atom of an element with respect to one atom of hydrogen, which is taken as unit. For example an atomic weight of carbon is 12 it means one atom of carbon is 12 times heavier than hydrogen   Atomic weight = Weight of one atom of an element / weight of one atom of a hydrogen   Atomic weight of few elements Hydrogen  1 Oxygen  16 Carbon  12 Nitrogen  14 Chlorine  35.5   Molecular weight It is the mass of...
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The Gas Laws

The Gas Laws

Dear Viewers In this blog we discuss the The Gas Laws Behaviour of gas: Every substance consists of several molecules and there is a force of attraction between the molecules.  In gas the intermolecular space is greater with respect to solid and liquid due to less force of attraction.  That is why gas has no definite shape and volume.  It has only the fixed mass.  Gas molecules are in random motion.  The collide with each other and also with the wall of container. The collision of gas molecules on the wall of the container is called gas pressure. When temperature increases, the speed of the molecules increase.  Hence the number of collision also increases.  As a result the pressure of gas increases. In defining a gas, it is necessary to mention the conditions of the gas that is temperature, pressure and volume.   Ideal Gas:  Those gasses obey the gas laws like Charle’s Law and Boyal’s law   Real Gas:  A real gas is a gas that does not behave...
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Metallurgy

Metallurgy

Dear viewers: Today in this blog we discuss about Metallurgy   Definition of Metallurgy:  The branch of science and technology concerned with the properties of metals and their production and purification. Mineral : When the extraction of metal from any sub ton is costly then it is mineral Eg. FeS. Ore:  When the extraction of metal from any substance is cheap then it is called ore. Fe3 O4 ( Magnetite) So all ores are minerals but minerals are not Ore.   Aluminum: A. Bauxite  Al2 O3 , 2H2 O  Dolomite – Calcium: A. Limestone  Ca Co3   Chromium: A. Chromites  Fe Cr2 O4   Copper: A. Copper pyrites or Chalcopyrites CuFeS2  Chalocite  Cu2 S  Copper glance Cu S Cuprites Cu2 O Malecite Cu CO3 . Cu (OH)2   Iron A. Haematite  Fe2 O4 Magnetite  Fe3 O4 Siderite  FeCO3   Zinc A.  Zinc Blende  ZnS Zincite  ZnO Calamine  ZnCO3   Manganese A. Pyrolusite Mn O2   Silver A. Horn silver  AgCl   Lead A. Galena PbS  Litharge PbO  Cerussite PbCO3 Anglesite PbSO4   Magnesium A Pyrolusite...
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The Hydrogen Sulphide Gas

The Hydrogen Sulphide Gas

Dear Viewers: Today we will discuss about the The Hydrogen Sulphide Gas, which is used as a chemical reagent as a in a laboratory and it has got a pungent smell like rotten egg. Hydrogen Sulphide  H2S   Laboratory Preparation:  It is prepared by the action of dilute H2SO4 or HCl on ferrous sulphide.   Reaction:  FeS    +    H2SO4    =     Fe2SO4     +        H2S         Concentrated sulphuric acid and nitric acid cannot be used for the preparation.  It is because H2S  thus produced will be oxidized by those acids to Sulphur     H2S     +     HNO3    =    NO2    +    S    +    H2O   H2S     +     H2SO4     =    SO2    +    S    +    H2O     Drying of the gas P2O5  is used to dry the gas   It is not dried by conc. Sulphuric acid for the above reason and also not by fused calcium chloride Because calcium chloride reacts with hydrogen chloride to form calcium sulphide and HCl   CaCl2   +    H2S    =    CaS    +    2HCl     Physical Properties Colourless Smell of rotten egg Heavier than air Slightly soluble in water   Chemical Properties   It is a dibasic acid   It...
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Importance of Chemical Equation

Importance of Chemical Equation

Dear viewers: Today in this blog we will discuss about the "Importance of Chemical Equation". Equation Equation or chemical equation When a change is expressed with the aid of symbol and formula then it is called as Equation. Example- Carbon burns in air to produce carbon dioxide.  It is expressed symbolically   C    +    O2    =    CO2 In the above reaction Carbon and oxygen are reactants and carbon dioxide is the product   How to write an equation Firstly,  the formulae of reactants are written in the left hand side of the equal to sign Secondly, the formulae of products are written in the right hand side of the equal to sign Thirdly,  plus sign is used when reactants and products are more than one Fourthly and Finally the equation is to be balanced so that the numbers of atoms on the right hand side must be equal to number of atoms to the left hand side. A chemical equation must be balanced because for the conservation of mass, which states that matter cannot...
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Water of Crystallization

Water of Crystallization

Hi viewers: Today we will discuss about the Water of Crystallization.   Water of Crystallisation The fixed number of water molecules, which are in loose combination with one molecule of a salt, is called water of crystallization. Examples of salt containing water of crystallization are as follows. Name of salt 1.  Gypsum or calcium sulphate bihydrate                        CaSO4 . 2H2O 2.  Washing soda or sodium carbonate decahydrate      Na2CO3 . 10H2O 3.  Magnesium sulphate heptahydrate                               MgSO4 . 7H2O 4.  Zinc sulphate heptahydrate                                            ZnSO4 . 7H2O 5.  Iron (II) sulphate heptahydrate                                     FeSO4 . 7H2O 6.  Copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate                              CuSO4 . 5H2O   A        Salt which are able to lose the water of crystallization on their own are known as efflorescent salt . B        Salt which ‘absorb’ moisture are known as deliquescent.  Sodium hydroxide is deliquescent. MgCl2 is deliquescent that why Table Salt become soggy on a rainy day it has some MgCl2 in it . If you have enjoyed reading this post I would be very grateful if you would help it to spread by sharing on social media like...
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