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Today we are going to discuss about the different types of Plant Tissues and their Functions.  To remember all the important points in this article we will use the telegraphic language.


What is a Tissue?

Ans.  An organised mass of cells of similar structures , similar origin and similar function.



A) Meristematic Tissue

B) Permanent Tissue:

a)  Simple Permanent Tissue:
i)  Stone Cell     ii)  Fibre

C) Complex Permanent Tissue:


  1.   Tracheid.

  2.   Trachea.

  3.   Xylem Parenchyma.

  4. Xylem Fibre.


  1. Companion Cell.

  2. Sieve Tube.

  3. Phloem Parenchyma.

  4. Phloem Fibre.


Meristematic Tissue



  1. Cells are living
  2. Hexagonal in shape.
  3. No inter-cellular space.
  4. Nucleus is prominent.
  5. Vacuole are small in size.
  6. Cell wall is thin.
  7. Protoplasm is granular.
  8. Retains the power of cell division.



It helps the plants to increase in height and girth.



  1. A) Apical meristem- Present at the apex of stem and root
  2. B) Intercalary meristem- Present in between the permanent tissues
  3. C) Lateral meristem- Present at the lateral side of root and stems


 Permanent Tissue:

A)  Simple Permanent Tissue:



  1. All cells are living
  2. Cytoplasm is granular.
  3. Vacuole is small.
  4. Cell wall is thin.
  5. Inter-cellular spaces are present.
  6. Nucleus is prominent.
  7. Chloroplastids are present.
  8. Spherical in shape.



  1. Store food.
  2. Aerenchyma has abundant air cavities helps to float the plant in water eg. Water hyacinth
  3. Chlorenchyma has abundant chloroplastids so it helps in photosynthesis eg. In green leaves
  4. When it is present with conducting tissue like xylem and phloem it helps in a transportation of

Water and food matters

  1. Gives mechanical strength to the plant



In leaf it is present in mesophyll tissue

In stem and root it is present in cortex, pith, medullary rays and epidermis



  1. Cells are polygonal in cross section
  2. The corners of the cell are swollen due to uneven deposition of cellulose
  3. Cells are living
  4. Cells are closely packed
  5. No intercellular spaces
  6. Cell wall is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin and suberin


Function: Gives mechanical strength to the plant



In stem it is present mainly below the epidermis of dicot stems


The tissue comprises of two types of cells Sclerenchyma fibres and sclereids or stone cells


Sclerenchyma fibres

  1. The Cells are dead in matured condition means no protoplasm is present.
  2. Elongated fibre like structure.
  3. Cells with pointed ends
  4. Cell walls are lignified
  5. Cells are uniformly thickened
  6. Cell walls with narrow openings called pits
  7. Nucleus is absent.


Function:  Gives mechanical strength to the plant.


Location:  Sclerenchyma fibres are present in hypodermis and in the vascular tissues of root, stem and leaf

Stone Cell / Sclereid:

  1. Spherical in shape
  2. Cells are dead in nature
  3. Concentric rings are present
  4. Nucleus is absent
  5. Cell walls with many pits
  6. Cell walls are lignified so it is very hard and so it is called as stone cells


Function:  Gives mechanical strength to the plant.


Location:  Present in the fruit wall, seed coats, bark and leaves


People who read this also read:  Structure and Function of Cytoplasmic Organelles of Cell

COMPLEX Permanent Tissue


Xylem:  It is a complex tissue because it is made up of four components.  There are

three components are dead, one component is alive, which is Xylem Parenchyma.



  1. Cells are elongated
  2. Both the ends are tapering
  3. Cells are dead
  4. Pits are present


Function:  Conduction of water from the root to the leaf.


  1. Elongated cells
  2. Cells are dead
  3. Cells are tubular in shape
  4. Cell walls are thick and lignified
  5. It forms a continuous pipe by dissolving of upper and lower cell walls



Xylem Fibre:

Function:  Helps in condition of water.


Xylem Parenchyma:

Function:  Helps in condition of water.


Locations.  Phloem is present vascular tissue



Phloem:  Translocation of food from leaf to different parts of the body.

Sieve Tube:

  1. Containing sieve.
  2. Nucleus is absent in matuared stage.
  3. Protoplasm is narrow.
  4. Living in nature.
  5. Nucleus is absent in matured stage.

Function:  Translocation of food.


Companion Cell:

  1. Companion cell is present beside the seive tuble.
  2. Nucleus is present.
  3. Protoplasm is granular.
  4. It is living in nature.

Function: To help in translocation of food.


Phloem Fibre or Bast fibre


Phloem parenchyma



Locations.  Phloem is present vascular tissue


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Hi viewers My name is Partha Pratim Goswami, (PpG) I am a teacher by profession. I have been teaching biology, chemistry and physics, sometimes mathematics also for last sixteen years. I would like to share my entire experience with all the viewers across the world through YouTube, which I think is an amazing platform to share all my experiences.

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