An Introduction to Organic Chemistry

An Introduction to Organic Chemistry

Hi viewers: In this blog we discuss the very basis fundamental knowledges about An Introduction to Organic Chemistry. Organic chemistry is also known as carbon chemistry So Organic compound is also known as carbon compound   All carbon compounds are not organic compound like CO2 and CO   German scientist Wholer was able to produce organic compound from inorganic compound.  He first formed Urea CO(NH2)2 from ammonium cyanate NH4CNO.  He is regarded as father of Organic Chemistry   Catenation property Carbon can form a long chain by linking with each other.  It is a unique property of carbon   Properties of Organic Compound It must contain carbon atom They are covalent They have low boiling and melting point They are non-electrolyte Homologous series can be formed Isomers are formed   C2H6O  -----à  1.   C2H5OH (ethyl alcohol)     2.    CH3-O-CH3  (dimethyl ether)   Soluble in organic solvent   Classification of organic compound   It is broadly categorized into 1.  Open Chain Compound and 2.  Closed Chain Compound   Open Chain further classified into 1.  Saturated compound  eg. All paraffins or alkanes Unsaturated compound eg....
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Mendeleeff’s Periodic Table

Mendeleeff’s Periodic Table

Hi viewers: In this blog we discuss about the Mendeleeff’s Periodic Table Periodic Classification of Elements Many attempts were made to classify elements for study of their study. Elements were divided on the basis of their states solid, liquid and gas and then by on the basis of Metals and non-metals but faced the failure due to the complex nature of the elements Mendeleeff at last gave the shape of the periodic classification of the elements.  He was able to find out the relation between the properties of the element with their atomic weight. Nature of the Mendeleeff’s Periodic Table When the elements are placed according to the increase of their atomic weight, it is found that elements in the same group possess the same properties. In this fashion when elements are placed they are placed in the horizontal rows and vertical column. The vertical column is known as group and The horizontal rows are known as period Mendeleeff’s Periodic Table there are 9 groups including 0 group, which is started from   I,...
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Electrovalency and Covalency

Electrovalency and Covalency

Hi viewers: Here we will discuss about the very basic ideas about Electrovalency and Covalency. Electrovalency The valency of the elements which enable them to combine with one another through direct transfer of electrons and to form ions in order to get  the electronic configuration of inert gases and are held together by electrostatic force of attraction is known as electrovalency or ionic valency   Electrovalent compound It is formed by transfer of electron It is an electrolyte It ionizes in aqueous solution or molten state Melting points and boiling points are very high If it dissolves, it dissolves in water     Covalency The valency of the elements which enable them to combine with one another through mutual sharing of electron pairs in order to attain the electronic structure of inert gases, to form a molecule is known as covalent bond   Covalent compound It is formed by mutual sharing of electrons It is non-electrolyte It does not ionizes in aqueous solution Melting points and boiling points are very low ...
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The Atomic Structure

The Atomic Structure

Hi viewers: Today in this blog we discuss The Atomic Structure The Atomic Structure or the structure of an atom, theoretically consisting of a positively charged nucleus surrounded and neutralized by negatively charged electrons revolving in orbits at varying distances from the nucleus, the constitution of the nucleus and the arrangement of the electrons differing with various chemical elements. Dalton’s Atomic Theory He is regarded as Father of Chemistry Every substance is composed of very minute particles, which are indivisible are known as atoms Atoms of a substance are identical in all respects Atoms of different substances are different in all respects When a substance combines with another substance, actually atoms combine with atoms When atoms combine each other their numbers are in simple ratio.   Therefore an atom is the smallest particle of an element, which can take part in chemical reaction.   Defect of the theory At present the atom may be further divided into electron, proton and neutron Atoms of same particles are alike in...
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Atomic Weight and Molecular Weight

Atomic Weight and Molecular Weight

Dear Viewers: In this blog we discuss "Atomic Weight and Molecular Weight" at length Atoms It is the smallest part of an element which cannot exist in a free state but take part in the chemical reaction. Atom of hydrogen is represented as H and sodium as Na (metals are monoatomic)   Molecule It is the smallest part of a substance (element + compound), which exist in the nature freely but cannot take part in the chemical reaction Molecule of hydrogen is represented as H2 and water as H2O Therefore molecules are combination of several atoms   Atomic Weight It is the weight of an atom of an element with respect to one atom of hydrogen, which is taken as unit. For example an atomic weight of carbon is 12 it means one atom of carbon is 12 times heavier than hydrogen   Atomic weight = Weight of one atom of an element / weight of one atom of a hydrogen   Atomic weight of few elements Hydrogen  1 Oxygen  16 Carbon  12 Nitrogen  14 Chlorine  35.5   Molecular weight It is the mass of...
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The Gas Laws

The Gas Laws

Dear Viewers In this blog we discuss the The Gas Laws Behaviour of gas: Every substance consists of several molecules and there is a force of attraction between the molecules.  In gas the intermolecular space is greater with respect to solid and liquid due to less force of attraction.  That is why gas has no definite shape and volume.  It has only the fixed mass.  Gas molecules are in random motion.  The collide with each other and also with the wall of container. The collision of gas molecules on the wall of the container is called gas pressure. When temperature increases, the speed of the molecules increase.  Hence the number of collision also increases.  As a result the pressure of gas increases. In defining a gas, it is necessary to mention the conditions of the gas that is temperature, pressure and volume.   Ideal Gas:  Those gasses obey the gas laws like Charle’s Law and Boyal’s law   Real Gas:  A real gas is a gas that does not behave...
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Metallurgy

Metallurgy

Dear viewers: Today in this blog we discuss about Metallurgy   Definition of Metallurgy:  The branch of science and technology concerned with the properties of metals and their production and purification. Mineral : When the extraction of metal from any sub ton is costly then it is mineral Eg. FeS. Ore:  When the extraction of metal from any substance is cheap then it is called ore. Fe3 O4 ( Magnetite) So all ores are minerals but minerals are not Ore.   Aluminum: A. Bauxite  Al2 O3 , 2H2 O  Dolomite – Calcium: A. Limestone  Ca Co3   Chromium: A. Chromites  Fe Cr2 O4   Copper: A. Copper pyrites or Chalcopyrites CuFeS2  Chalocite  Cu2 S  Copper glance Cu S Cuprites Cu2 O Malecite Cu CO3 . Cu (OH)2   Iron A. Haematite  Fe2 O4 Magnetite  Fe3 O4 Siderite  FeCO3   Zinc A.  Zinc Blende  ZnS Zincite  ZnO Calamine  ZnCO3   Manganese A. Pyrolusite Mn O2   Silver A. Horn silver  AgCl   Lead A. Galena PbS  Litharge PbO  Cerussite PbCO3 Anglesite PbSO4   Magnesium A Pyrolusite...
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