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Today we will discuss about the world of Pterydophyta

Definition of Pterydophyta
Pteridophytes are vascular plants that reproduce and disperse via spores, these plants produce neither flowers nor seeds and it also show alternation of generation.

PROPERTIES PTERYDOPHYTA

  1. Autophytic nutrition.
  2. Terrestrial
  3. Body is divisible into root, stem and leaf
  4. They are nonflowering plants
  5. Reserve food material is starch
  6. Cell wall- cellulose
  7. Sporophytes and Gametophytes are separate plants
  8. Adult life starts with sprophyte
  9. Chemotropism- occurs by synthesis of malic acid
  10. Vascular tissue is present
    Eg. Any kind of fern

    1.  What are the main characters of Pteridophytes? (3)

    Ans. The main characters of Pteridophytes are in the following:
    a) Pteridophytic plants are advanced than the bryophytes but less advanced than gymnosperms, and mostly they are terrestrial.
    b) They are non-flowering plants, and do not bear flowers, fruits and seeds.
    c) The leaves are generally of two types- small and scale like microphyllous and large megaphyllous.
    d) The plant body is the sporophyte, which is well developed, autotrophic and long lived. The body cell possesses diploid (2n) number of chromosomes. The plant body is differentiated into root, stem and leaf.
    e) In most cases the stem is rhizome like. Roots are adventitious and the branching of the stem is dichotomous.
    f) A special type of leaves called the sporophylls bear sporangia on their upper surface and near the axil.

    2. Name two Indian species of Dryopteris. (2)
    Ans. Dryopteris filixmas and Dryopteris ramosa

    3. Which group of plants are called vascular cryptogams? (2)
    Ans. The sporophyte shows well marked differentiation of vascular tissues viz. xylem and phloem and hence called vascular cryptogams.

    4.  Differentiate between Bryophyta and Pteridophyta. (4)
    Ans.

Bryophyta Pteridophyta
1. The plant body is gametophyte.
2. The sporophyte is dependent on the gametophyte.
3. The roots and rhizoids are absent in the sporophyte.
4. The sporophytes are differentiated into foot, seta and capsule.
5. True vascular tissue is lacking.
6. Antherozoids are biflagellate.
1. The plant body is sporophyte.
2. The sporophyte and gametophyte are independent of each other.
3. The sporophyte contains rhizoid like roots.
4. The sporophyte is differentiated into root, stem and leaves.
5. True vascular tissues are well developed.
6. Antherozoids are multiflagellate.

5.
What is ramenta? (2)
Ans. In Dryopteris, the stem is rhizomatous, covered by scaly leaves called ramenta.
6.
What is meristele? (2)
Ans. The stem of Dryopteris shows dictyostele with multiple leaf traces and leaf gaps, each individual stele is called meristele.

7.  Write the differences between indusium and calyptra. (2)

Ans.
Indusium Calyptra
1. It occurs only in fern sporophyte.
2. It is sporophytic in origin.
3. It is a projection of sterile tissue covering the ventral part of sorus.
4. It protects the sporangium.
1. It occurs both in moss and fern sporophyte.
2. It is gametophytic in origin.
3. It is a veil of sterile tissue covering the sporophyte, persistent in moss and fern.
4. It protects the sporophyte at the early stage of development.

8.
Write the differences between annulus and stomium. (2)Ans.

Annulus Stomium
1. They are thick walled cells of the sporangial wall of Dryopteris.
2. They are more frequent in the sporangial wall.
3. The thick bands on the annulus help in the contraction of the sporangial wall.
1. They are thin walled cells of the sporangial wall.
2. They are less frequent in the sporangial wall.
3. The contraction of the annulus causes rupturing of the stomium, causing dispersal of spores.

9.

Write the differences between Bryophyta and Pteridophyta. (4)
Ans.

Bryophyta Pteridophyta
1. The plant body is a gametophyte.
2. The sporophyte is dependent on the gametophyte.
3. The roots and rhizoids are absent in the sporophyte.
4. The sporophytes are differentiated into foot, seta and capsule.
5. The differentiation of true vascular tissue is lacking.
6. Antherozoids are biflagellate.
7. Archegonium is longer with 5-7 neck canal cells and one ventral canal cell.
8. The chemotaxism exhibited by antherozoids is induced by sucrose.
1. The plant body is a sporophyte.
2. The sporophyte and gametophyte are independent of each other.
3. The sporophyte contains rhizoid like roots.
4. The sporophyte is differentiated into root, stem and leaves.
5. Vascular tissues are well differentiated.
6. Antherozoids are multiflagellate.
7. Archegonium is shorter with one binucleate neck canal cell and one ventral canal cell.
8. The chemotaxism of antherozoids is induced by malic acid.

10.  State the characteristics of root, stem, leaves of fern. (2)
Ans. Ferns have adventitious roots, rhizomatous stem and pinnately compound leaves.

11.
What type of venation is found in Dryopteris? (2)
Ans. Open furcate venation.

12.
Which pteridophyte shows bio-accumulation of gold? (1)
Ans. Equisetum arwense

13.
Name two aquatic pteridophytes. (2)
Ans. Azolla and Marsilea

14.
What is coenosorus? (2)
Ans. When the sorus (it is a reniform or kidney shaped structure with a very short stalk present on the ventral surface of the leaflets) remains fused, it form a coenosorus. Example- Pteris.

15.
What is microphyllous leaf? (2)
Ans. The small parenchymatous leaf with a single, central mid-vein covering the rhizomatous stem of fern is known as microphyllous leaf.

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PpG

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Hi viewers My name is Partha Pratim Goswami, (PpG) I am a teacher by profession. I have been teaching biology, chemistry and physics, sometimes mathematics also for last sixteen years. I would like to share my entire experience with all the viewers across the world through YouTube, which I think is an amazing platform to share all my experiences.

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