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Hi viewer:
Today we will discuss about the very basic knowledge about the Solutions and Solubility.  Here we will discuss the behaviour of different substances when it goes into solution at different temperature.

Solution

Definition

It is the homogeneous mixture of two or more than two substances

 

There are different types of solution namely

 

Solid and Solid solution

Example an alloy- brass, bronze, stainless steel

 

Solid and Liquid solution

Example sugar and water solution

 

Liquid and Liquid solution

Example water and ethyl alcohol

 

Liquid and Gas solution

Example oxygen in water

 

Gas and Gas solution

Example air in particular area

 

Solid and Liquid and Gas

Example  Lemonade

 

 

In Solid and Liquid solution,  the solid is called solute and liquid is called solvent

 

Therefore, Solute  + Solvent  =  Solution

Greater quantity is known as Solvent

Lesser quantity is known as Solute

 

 

Solid liquid solution can be classified into two types

Unsaturated solution- In a particular temperature when more solute can be dissolved

Saturated solution-  In a particular temperature when no further solute can be dissolved

If a saturated solution is heated more solute go into solution that means the solution becomes unsaturated

 

Solubility

Solubility of a substance is defined as the number of grams of solute that is required to saturate 100 gms of solvent at a particular  temperature.

For example the solubility of potassium nitrate at 30° C is 45

It means 45 grams of potassium nitrate require to saturate 100 g of water.

Solubility has no unit

 

The solubility of solid and liquid substances generally depends upon the temperature.

When temperature rises the solubility of the substance rises.
The effect of pressure on the solubility of solid and liquid is very little.

The solubility of gas depends upon the temperature and pressure.

The solubility of a substance decreases when the temperature rises and vice versa

and

The solubility of a substance increases when the pressure increases and vice versa

But there are some substances, which are exceptional.

1)  Solubility decreases with rise of temperature in case of Slaked Lime or Calcium Hydroxide  Ca(OH)2
2)  Solubility increases and then decreases with the rise of temperature in case of Sodium Sulphate Na2SO4
3)  Solubility remains unchanged in case of Sodium Chloride or common salt  NaCl  with the rise or fall of
temperature.

Problems:

1.  7.6 g of saturated solution of cane sugar of 20° C contain 5.1 g of sugar.  What is the solubility of the cane sugar at      the said temperature.

2.  How much water at 30° C will be required to prepare a saturated solution of 90 g of salts.
Given:  Solubility of that salt at 35° C is 45

3.  A saturated solution of a substance was prepared by dissolving 48 gms of a substance in 120 gm of distilled water
at 80° C.  If 100 gms of above solution is cooled to 0° C.  Find how much substance will crystallize out.  If
solubility of substances at 0° C is half of that at 80° C.

4.  100 c.c. of a saturated solution of potassium chlorate of density 1.1g/c.c. at 30° C contains 9 gm of potassium
chlorate.  Find the solubility of potassium chlorate at that temperature.

5.  25 g of distilled water dissolves 3 gms of potassium chlorate at 40° C to give a saturated solution.  Find the
solubility of that salt at that temperature.

6.  A boiling solution containing 32 gms of a substance in 72 gms of solution began to deposit  crystal at 60° C.  What
is the solubility at that temperature.

7.  How much salt will be required to prepare 250 gm of its saturated solution at 30° C.  If the solubility of salt at
30° C is 38.5

8.  72 gm of water are saturated with silver nitrate at 60° C and then cooled to 5° C.  How much silver nitrate will
crystallize out.  Given solubility of silver nitrate at 60° C and 15° C are 525 and 196

Alloy

Alloy is a solid solution of two or more metals formed by mixing them during the moten state in a definite ratio

Eg.  Brass – Cu : Zn = 70 : 30 by weight

 

Find the percentage composition of following alloys

Magnellium

Electron

Duralumin

Alnico

Delta metal

German silver

Bronze

Bell metal

Chrome metal

Stainless steel

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See you in my next blog post.

PpG

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Hi viewers My name is Partha Pratim Goswami, (PpG) I am a teacher by profession. I have been teaching biology, chemistry and physics, sometimes mathematics also for last sixteen years. I would like to share my entire experience with all the viewers across the world through YouTube, which I think is an amazing platform to share all my experiences.

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