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Hi Viewers:

Today we are going to discuss a very important aspect of Structure and Function of Cytoplasmic Organelles of Cell.  These Cytoplasmic organelles are present both in plant cells and in animal cells.  Now let us check out what cytoplasmic organelles are present in the plant cells and in animal cells.  On that basis we will be able to differentiate between the plant cells and animal cells.

What is Cytoplasmic Organelles?

 

All the tiny living inclusions present within the cytoplasm is called cell organelles. 

 

 

Nucleus

 

Nucleus is double membrane bound dense spherical body, containing nuclear reticulum, nucleolus and nucleoplasm

 

Structure:  Under electron microscope the nucleus shows the following structures

 

  1. Nuclear Membrane: it is delicate, it is porous, it is double layered, its function is to separate nucleus from the surrounding cytoplasm
  2. Nucleoplasm: it is dense, its mass is clear, it forms the matrix of the nucleus, its function is to store reserve materials for the cell division
  3. Nuclear Reticulum: it is highly coiled structure which is also called as Chromatin Reticulum, its function is to carry genetic materials from one generation to the next generation
  4. Nucleolus: it is refractile, dense nonmembranous spherical body present within the nucleus, its function is to produce RNA and ribosomes

 Watch the Video Lecture below to have a better understanding of the subject: 

Functions:

1]  It is the centre of all biochemical activities of the cell

2]  It controlling centre of the major physiological processes taking place within the cell

3]  It contains chromosomes, which contain genes. The genes help in transmission of the hereditary characters from parents to offspring

4]  It also initiates and regulates the cell division

 

Centrosome

 

Definition:  From any text book

 

Structure:  The centrosome consists of two parts

Centriole:  These are two in number, cylindrical in shape and right angle to each other

Centrosphere:  It is the dense matrix surrounding the centriole

 

Functions: 
  1. In animal cells it helps in cell division by forming spindle fibres
  2. In animal cells sometimes it also helps in the formation of flagella

 

Location:  It is present in the animal cell close by to nucleus

 

 

  Mitochondria

  1. Double layered membrane under electron microscope
  2. Inner wall is thrown into finger like projection called cristae
  3. It is rod shaped.
  4. The space between two membrane is called perimitochondrial space
  5. On the cristae there are tennis racket like structures are present called F1 particle
  6. The floor of mitochondria is called matrix
  7. It is called power house of a cell

 

Function: It is also known as power house of the cell, which libarates energy by the cellular respiration through the production of ATP molecule.

Watch the Video Lecture below to have a better understanding of the subject: 

Plastid

There are three types of plastids

  1. Chloroplastid: Double layered under electron microscope

It contains thylakoids, within it there is quantasomes, within it there are chlorophyll

Present in leaves

Green in colour due to presence of chlorophyll

Helps in photosynthesis

  1. Chromoplastid:  Double layered membrane under electron microscope

It contains membranous tubes instead of thylakoid

Present in flowers

It is yellow and orange in colour due to Xanthophyll and Carotein

Helps to give different colours to the flower

  1. Leucoplastid:  Double layered membrane under electron microscope

Spherical in shape

It is colourless present in roots

It helps to store food materials

 

Functions

1.Chloroplastid:  Present in leaves.  Helps in photosynthesis

2.Chromoplastid:  Present in flowers.  Helps in pollination

3.Leucoplastid:  Present in roots.  Helps to store food

 

Plastid is also known as kitchen of the cell.

 

People who read this also read: How to Differentiate Between Prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell

Vacuole

  1. The membrane which covers the vacuole is known as tonoplasm
  2. Inside the vacuole is called cell sap
  3. It forms the primordial utricle in a mature plant cell
  4. Present in plant cells, sometime in animal cells

 

Function : To store reserve food matter, excretory matter and secretory matter

 

Granules: In animal cells the reserve food matter is glycogen.  In plants cell, the reserve food matter is starch

Exception: Fungi-  They store reserve food matter is glycogen

 

 

 Endoplasmic Reticulum

  1. It is composed of three structures, Tubules, Cistarnae and Vesicle.

Tubules are branched narrow tube like structure

Cisternae are large flat sacs like structure

Vesicles are spherical sac like structure

  1. All these structures are composed of single lipoprotein membrane
  2. There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum:
  3.   Rough            b. Smooth
  4. Rough is called when ribosomes are present on it.
  5. Smooth is called when ribosomes are absent on it.

 

Function:

  1. Transportation within the cells, mainly between nucleus and cytoplasm
  2. To frame the internal skeleton of the cell.
  3. The rough ER or granular ER synthesizes protein
  4. The smooth ER synthesizes sterol, fats and phospholipids

 

 Golgi body

  1. It is composed of Cisternae stacked upon each other
  2. Vesicles emerges out from the cisternae

Function:

  1. Secretion of different types of hormones and enzymes within the cell.

 

Lysosome

 

  1. It is composed of only Vesicle
  2. It is surrounded by lipoprotein membrane
  3. Within it hydrolytic enzymes are present

Watch the Video Lecture below to have a better understanding of the subject: 

 

 

Function:

It contains various types of digestive enzymes and during the starvation, it releases the enzymes,

which digest the cell organelles and then the entire cell to release the energy, this phenomenon is called autophagy .

Hence it is called suicidal bag.

 

Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Body and Lysosome together called GERL

 

Ribosomes

 

Ribosomes are present everywhere in cytoplasm or in a cluster form or attached with ER, mitochondria  and chloroplast.

Watch the Video Lecture below to have a better understanding of the subject: 

Ribosomes consists of two sub-units.  One unit is smaller than the other unit.

The size of smaller unit is 30S in prokaryotic cells and 40S in eukaryotic cells

The size of larger unit is 50S in prokaryotic cells and 60S in eukaryotic cells

 

So In Prokaryotes the ribosomes are 30S + 50S = 70S

In Eukaryotes the ribosomes are 40S + 60S = 80S

 

Now we can differentiate between a Plant Cell and an Animal Cell

  1.  Plant cells do possess Cell wall but Animal cells do not possess Cell wall
  2.  Plant cells do have Plastid but Animal cells do not have any Plastid
  3.   Plant cells do not have any centrosome but Animal cells do have centrosomes

 

If you have enjoyed reading this post about Structure and Function of Cytoplasmic Organelles of Cell.  I would be very greatful if you would help it to spread by sharing on social media like Facebook, Twitter, Google+, by clicking on the share buttons below.If you have any questions or comments, feel free to ask them in the comment section below.   See you in my next blog post.

 

PpG

 

    Also Read on Science Reckoner:

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Hi viewers My name is Partha Pratim Goswami, (PpG) I am a teacher by profession. I have been teaching biology, chemistry and physics, sometimes mathematics also for last sixteen years. I would like to share my entire experience with all the viewers across the world through YouTube, which I think is an amazing platform to share all my experiences.

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