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Hi viewer:

Today we will discuss about animal tissues in a telegraphic language to understand it lucidly.  The explanation of  the topic you will get in our YouTube Channel.

So let us start with the structure function and location of animal tissue:

ANIMAL TISSUE

Epithelial Tissue

Characteristic Features

  1. In the epithelial tissue, the cells are embedded on the basement membrane.
  2. In the epithelial tissue, blood vascular system is absent.
  3. It develops from the ectoderm.
  4. Cells are closely packed with no intercellular spaces.
  5. The cell possesses prominent nucleus granular cytoplasm and no vacuole.

 

Squamous Epithelial Tissue

  1. Cells are arranged like tiles in a mosaic fashion or like scales.
  2. Nucleus is prominent.
  3. Cells membrane is prominent.
  4. Cells are thin, flat and irregular in outline

 

Location:
It is present in the inner walls of the lips, in the inner walls of Alveoli of the Lungs, Bowman’s Capsule of Nephron, inner linings of Blood Vessels, and in the Peritoneum

Functions

  1. This tissue acts as the covering membrane
  2. Hence it gives protection to the underlying structures
  3. Does the job of filtration in kidneys
  4. It helps in gaseous exchange in the lungs through diffusion

 

Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue

  1. Cells are cuboidal in nature.
  2. Nucleus is prominent.
  3. Cells are on the basement membrane.

 

Location:  In Salivary gland, thyroid gland, kidney tubules, testis and ovary.

 

Function:  Protection, Secretion and Reproduction.

 

Coloumnar Epithelial Tissue

  1. Cells are pillar shaped.
  2. The height of the cell is greater than the length and breadth
  3. Nucleus is at the base.
  4. Cells are on the basement membrane.

 

Location:  Inner lining of many gland’s ducts, stomach, small intestine and large intestine,

 

Function:  Protection, Absorption and Secretion

 

Ciliated Epithelial Tissue

  1. Cells are pillar shaped.
  2. Nucleus is at the base.
  3. Each cell do possess 20 – 30 hair like processes
  4. Cells are basement membrane.

Location:  Inner wall of Trachea (Wind pipe), Oviduct (Fallopian tube) and Ventricles of Brain

 

Function:  It helps to maintain a flow of liquid or suspended particles in one direction

 

Glandular Epithelium Tissue

  1. The cells are either cuboidal or short columnar or polyhedral in shape
  2. On the basement membrane these cells are usually arranged in a single layer (in exocrine gland)

 

Location:  Forms the secretory unit of salivary glands, pancreas, sweat glands, thyroid glands

Functions of Epithelial Tissue

The Overall functions of Epithelial Tissues are

  1. Protection (external covering)
  2. Absorption (From intestine)
  3. Secretion (gland)
  4. Filtration (kidney)

                        CONNECTIVE TISSUE

 

Characters of Connective Tissue:

  1. All connective tissues originate from mesoderm.
  2. Basement membrane is absent in the connective tissue.
  3. Cells are embedded on the matrix.
  4. The cellular components are in fewer amounts than the matrix.
  5. Connective tissue connects different part of the body.

 

  1. Areolar Connective 2.  Adipose Connective  3.  Bones   4.  Cartilage  5. Blood
  2. Tendons and 7. Ligaments

 

Aerolar Connective Tissue
1.   White collangenous fibre is present
2.  Yellow elastic fibre is present
3.  Cells are embedded on the matrix
4.  Fibroblast, Fibrocyte , Histocyte, Melanocyte, Mast cell and Plasma cells are present.

Location:  It joins skin to muscles, fills spaces inside the muscles, blood vessels and nerves.  In other words

It occupies the intercellular space of other connective tissues

Function:  It acts as a packing material of a body.

 

Adipose Connective Tissue

  1. Nucleus is prominent
  2. Cell contains fats droplet
  3. Cells are spherical
  4. Cell are supported by white fibres, yellow fibres and fibroblast

Location:  Present outside of the kidney, under the skin (subcutaneous region), in the mammary gland

Function:
It acts as mechanical shock absorbe

It acts as good insulation

It acts as store house of energy

Bones

  1. Lamellae is present.
  2. Lacunae is present.
  3. Haversian canal is present.
  4. Osteoblast, Osteocyte is present.
  5. The matrix is made up of calcium and phosphate
  6. Canaliculi are present.

 

Location:  Present in the endoskeleton of all vertebrates

 

Function:
1.  It forms the endoskeleton,
2.  It makes the frame work of the body.
3.  Long bones produce blood corpuscles.

 

Cartilage

  1. Cells are embedded on the matrix.
  2. Matrix is made up of chondrin.
  3. Chondrocytes are present.

 

There are three types of cartilage are found

  1. a) Hyaline cartilage– most common, found in the ribs, nose, larynx, trachea.
  2. b) Fibrocartilage– is found in intervertebral discs, joint capsule and in ligaments
  3. c) Elastic cartilage– is found in the external ear, epiglottis and larynx

 

Location:  Nose, Ear and trachea etc.

 

Function:  To give mechanical support of a structure.

 

People who read this also read:  What are the types of plant tissues and their functions: Class 8 

 

Blood

It is a liquid connective tissue because it has liquid matrix known as plasma.

It contains following types of cells:

  1. Erythrocyte or Red Blood Corpuscles (RBC)
  2. Leucocyte or White Blood Corpuscles (WBC)
  3. Thromobocyte or Platelets  (Platelets)

 

Erythrocyte or (RBC)

  1. Biconcave in mammals and Biconvex in amphibians.
  2. In mammalian RBC, the RBCs are non nucleated in matured stage(except-Camel).
  3. Nucleus is absent in matured stage.
  4. It contains conjugated protein or iron containing protein called haemoglobin.

Life Span- 120 days or 4 months.

Birth- From red bone marrow.

Death- Spleen.

Total Count- 4.5lakhs/c.c in female and 50 lakhs/c.c in male.

 

Leucocyte (WBC)

  1. Nucleated
  2. Nucleus is large in size.
  3. Protoplasm is granular.
  4. Life Span- 12 days.
  5. Birth-From red bone marrow.
  6. Death-Spleen.
  7. Total Count-6000-8000/c.c.

Thrombocyte (Platelets)

  1. Very small in size.
  2. Life Span-12 days.
  3. Birth-From red-bone marrow.
  4. Death-Spleen.
  5. Total Count-12000/c.c.

 

Functions:

RBC- It helps to carry oxygen by the help of haemoglobin.

WBC-

A) It secretes anti-allergic substances like histamin (eosinophil).
B) It secretes anti-coagulant like substance like heparin (basophil).
C) It produces antibody to build up immunity in the body (lymphocytes).
D) It prevents the body from different infections by destroying pathogens throug the process of phagocytosis (monocytes and neutrophil)

Platelets: Helps to clot blood.

 

Why blood is called the liquid connective tissue?

  1. As all the connective tissue originates from mesoderm similarly blood also originates from mesoderm.
  2. As Basement membrane is absent in connective tissue similarly in blood, basement membrane is absent also.
  3. As cells are embedded on matrix similarly in blood the corpuscles are also embedded on the liquid matrix    which is known as plasma.
  1. As the cellular components are in less amount in the matrix similarly in blood 55% plasma and 45% blood    corpuscles.
  1. Since here the matrix (plasma) is also liquid in nature, hence blood is known as liquid connective tissue.

 

 

TENDONS

Tendons are cord like, strong, inelastic structures that join skeletal muscles to bones.  Thus a tendon is a white

Fibrous tissue.  It has great strength but its flexibility is limited.  It consists of parallel bundles of collagen fibres

Between which are present rows of fibroblasts (called tendinocytes).  Collagen fibres are bounded by areolar

Connecting tissue.

 

LIGAMENTS

They are elastic structures which connect bones to bones.  A ligament is highly elastic and has great strength but

Contains very little matrix.  In ligament, some elastic and many collagen fibres are bound together by areolar

Connective tissue.  Fibroblasts are compressed in between regular rows of fibres.  Sprain is caused by excessive

Pulling (stretching) of ligaments.

 

  MUSCLES

 

MUSCLES:  1.  Striated muscles   2.  Smooth muscles   3.  Cardiac muscles

 

Stiated muscle or Voluntary muscles or Skeletal muscles or Striped muscles

  1. Muscle cells are long, non tapering, cylindrical and unbranched
  2. Cell are multinucleated, and also made up of actin and myosin.
  3. The plasma membrane of muscle is known as sarcolemma.
  4. The muscle fibre has alternate dark and light band and dark band.
  5. The protoplasm of the muscle is known as sarcoplasm.
  6. The E.R. of the muscle is known as sarcoplasmic reticulum.
  7. Myofibrils are present.
  8. More mitochondria are present.
  9. It acts according to our sweet will.
  10. It is attached with the long bones

 

Occurrence:  It occurs in the limbs, body wall, face, neck.

 

Function:  Striated muscle provide the force for locomotion and all other voluntary movements of the body

 

Smooth muscle or Involuntary muscle or Unstriated muscle or Visceral muscle

  1. Cells are spindle shaped.
  2. The muscle fibre has no alternate dark and light band and dark band.
  3. Cells are uni-nucleated.
  4. Delicate contractile thread myofibril is present.
  5. It does not act according to our will.

 

Occurrence:  Smooth muscles are found in the walls of the hollow visceral organs except that of the heart, that

Is why it is also known as visceral muscles.

 

Function:

  1. Opening and closing of all sorts of tubes, which are all involuntary movements.
  2. Peristaltic movement of the gut.
  3. Extrusive movement of the urinary bladder.

 

Cardiac muscle

  1. It is branched.
  2. Intercalated discs are present.
  3. Multinucleated.
  4. Involuntary in action
  5. Abundant loose connective tissues are present
  6. Blood vessels are present.

 

Occurrence:  In the heart.

 

Function: Contraction and Relaxation of the heart muscles.

NERVE

  1. Cell is star shaped or stellate shaped.
  2. Dendrite and dendrons are present.
  3. Large nucleus is present.
  4. Nissl’s granules are present in the cytoplasm.
  5. Axon is present.
  6. In some nerve, axon is surrounded by myelin sheath.
  7. Node of Ranvier is also present if the nerve axon is surrounded by myelin sheath.
  8. At the end Axon button is present.
  9. In the cell body mitrochondria are present.
  10. In the cell body ER and Golgi body are present.

 

Occurrence:  In the sense organ.

 

Function:  To response the internal and external stimuli.

Please do watch the video below, where I have discussed 25 tricky questions on Tissues mainly on animal

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PpG

 

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Hi viewers My name is Partha Pratim Goswami, (PpG) I am a teacher by profession. I have been teaching biology, chemistry and physics, sometimes mathematics also for last sixteen years. I would like to share my entire experience with all the viewers across the world through YouTube, which I think is an amazing platform to share all my experiences.

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  • Saumyaa

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