Today we will discuss about the The Different types of Ergastic Materials of a Cell
Ergastic materials: These are the non-living materials found in cells, which includes Reserve materials, Secretory products and Excretory products.
So all nonliving inclusions of the cell are called Ergastic materials
These ergastic materials are found in cytoplasm and vacuole
These are of three types
Reserve food matters
Plants reserve carbohydrates in the form of starch and glycogen in fungi only
Plants reserve protein in the form of aleurone grains
Plants reserve fat in the form of elaioplast
Animals reserve carbohydrate in the form of glycogen
Animals reserve fat in the adipocyte cells or fat cells
Like Nector, Colouring materials (pigments) Hormones, Enzymes, etc are secreted by plant cells and animals cells
These are formed within the plant cells and animal cells due to metabolism. These metabolic byproducts are the excretory products. In plants these excretory products can be nitrogenous or non-nitrogenous. These excretory products have got considerable economic importances.
- Raphides: These are needle-shaped crystals of calcium oxalate that normally lie in bundles. When such cell are consumed the crystals prick in the buccal cavity and in the pharynx causing irritation and itching sensation. Eg. Arum, water hyacinth.
- Cystolith: These are crystals of calcium carbonate that remain in the form of bunch of grapes inside the cells. eg. Banyan, rubber plant.
- Tannins: These are excretory products with disagreeable taste. Eg. Myrabalans (B. trifala). Importance:
- It is used in tannery for tanning hide into leather.
- It is used in ink industry.
- Latex: It is liquid excretory product that flows through laticiferous ducts. It is mainly milky white as in rubber plant, banyan, jackfruit, Calotropis (B, akanda). Importance:
The latex of the Indian Rubber plant is the raw materials for the manufacture of commercial rubber.
- Resin: It is a liquid excretory product that becomes solidified when comes in contact with air. Eg. Pine. Importance:
- It is used in manufacturing glue and for the preparation of different dyes. Shellac (a resin) used for sealing purpose.
- Gum: Liquid excretory products that become crystallized coming in contact with air. It is soluble in water. Eg. Acacia (babla). Importance:
it is used for making commercial adhesive for pasting of various materials like paper, cloth etc. It is also used as a laxative in medicine.
The nitrogenous products are given common name alkaloids. Alkaloids are generally provided with disagreeable taste and hence their deposition inside the plant body helps the plant to protect against herbivores. Many alkaloids have a high amount of medicinal value and hence are used in pharmaceutical industries. The names of some alkaloids and their medicinal uses are given below.
Alkaloids Source Use
1. Quinine Cinchona (bark) Medicine for the treatment of malaria
2. Morphine Opium, poppy Used as a sedative
3. Caffeine Coffee, tea Used as a stimulant
4. Reserpine Sarpagandha Medicine for the treatment of hypertension
5. Rauwolfine Rauwolfia (root) Medicine for the treatment of hypertension
6. Strychnine Nux-vomica Used as a depoisoning substance
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